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How to Plant Vegetable Seeds

How to Plant Vegetable Seeds

Store your seeds in a cool, dry and dark location. Most seeds have a long shelf life, but heat and moisture will cut that life short. Dedicate a drawer or cabinet to storing your seeds where you can also house your gardening journal close at hand for dreaming, planning and preparing.

Planting a vegetable garden is an age-old tradition that in recent years has become more popular than ever. Growing one’s own food can be a tremendously pleasurable and rewarding endeavor, but like any gardening project, a few basic ground rules are required to achieve desired results.

Step One: When to Plant Vegetables

Well that all depends on what you're growing, where you live, and when you're hoping to harvest. You want the soil to be completely thawed, mostly dry, and totally workable. Most plants prefer a soil temperature in the range of 65 to 75 F, but like most things in gardening, there are exceptions!

The best place to start is with your planting zone. Enter your zip code into our zone map here to find your zone. Then decide what you'd like to plant. Our website has a Hardiness Zone filter for every variety, so you'll see the top recommendations for your area. Each vegetable seed has its own planting guide.

When you've determined what you'd like to grow, locate the planting information tab for that variety on the product page. Basic planting information is featured there, as well as a link to a more in-depth planting guide that explains when to plant, how long it takes to grow, when to harvest, and more.

Step Two: Where to Plant Vegetables

Indoors or Outdoors?

Unlike some other more finicky types of seeds, vegetable seeds tend to be a pretty versatile lot, and can usually be successfully planted either indoors or out. For those with limited space or resources, indoor planting is usually the way to go, whilst those fortunate enough to possess a patch of god’s green earth can sow the seeds directly into the soil. In either case, the process is a lot more cut-and-dry than you may think, and it’s also a lot of fun!

Step Three: How to Plant Vegetables

Planting Vegetable Seeds Indoors or "Seed Starting:"

The process of sowing vegetable seeds indoors is called “seed starting." To begin with, use a shallow pot with holes in the bottom for drainage. Fill the pot with rich potting soil, and water generously. It’s important not to drown the soil, but rather add just enough water to make it moist. Once the soil is properly prepared, simply press your vegetable seeds into place using the depth chart at the bottom of this page as a guide.

Next, as the days pass, watch for germination. The first thing you’re likely to see is what will appear to be a set of small leaves. Continue to water regularly so that the soil and seed mixture stay evenly moist as your plants begin to grow. It’s also a good idea to feed your plants a good water-soluble fertilizer every week or so to stimulate growth. After your seedlings have sprouted, you may wish to transplant them to individual pots to prevent overcrowding and/or prepare them for eventual transplanting outdoors. This is accomplished by simply watering the seedlings just prior to removal and gently lifting them out with a spoon or small trowel. Set the seedlings into their new pots, carefully firming the soil around the roots. As usual, continue to water lightly and fertilize as necessary. If you choose to transplant your fledgling plants to an outdoor vegetable garden, be sure to wait until any danger of frost has passed. It’s also recommended that you transplant on a mild and overcast day – or even at night - so as not to “shock” the previously pampered house plants. Just prior to transplanting, water the plants to loosen the soil and then simply tap them out of their pots. Then remove the plant and soil and place it in a previously dug hole, making sure that it is level to the ground.

Planting Vegetable Seeds Outdoors or "Direct Sowing:"

Unless you live in an area where summers are really short, you're better off sowing some types of vegetable seeds directly in a garden. Large-seeded, fast-growing vegetables, such as corn, melons, squash, beans, and peas, usually languish if they're grown in containers for even a day or two too long.

Before direct sowing, make sure that the soil has dried out sufficiently before you work it, and be sure that the soil is warm enough for the seeds that you want to plant. If your soil temperature is much below 65°F (18°C), the seeds are likely to rot in the ground before they sprout. The best way to determine the temperature of your soil is to use a soil thermometer, which you can buy at any garden store. You can plant your vegetable seeds in a variety of patterns; though the most common method is row planting. If you have a large area or allotment, you’ll probably find this method the easiest. However, don’t fret if space is at a premium; even if you’re dealing with just a few square feet, you can still plant in rows.

Mark the placement of a row within your garden, and then make a furrow at the correct depth along the row. Some seeds may not sprout, so sow seeds more thickly than you want the final spacing of the crops to be. Thinning rows is less of a chore if you space seeds as evenly as possible. Cover the seeds with fine soil and then firm them in with the back of a hoe to make sure that all the seeds are in contact with the soil.

Step Four: How to Care for Vegetables

Once your vegetable seeds are sown, make sure to water regularly until they sprout. Soon after seedlings grow their second set of true leaves, you may want to thin them out to avoid overcrowding. When you thin plants, either discard the extra seedlings or move them to another part of your garden. Newly transplanted seedlings need extra attention until they get established.